Friday, December 27, 2019

The 19th Century - 1305 Words

1. The 19th century was a time of change with the Industrial Revolution affecting the economy, society and politics. The steam engine expanded industries. Western Europe saw many inventions during this period as well as the notion of developing national identities. Russia was emerging from feudalism during this time and did not embrace industrialization. Russia had become one of the most powerful countries in the world and was able to play a role in European affairs after especially after the defeat of Napoleon in 1814. The English society in the 19th century was called the Victorian era because of the long and peaceful reign of Queen Victoria. This time appeared to be dignified and restrained but there was child labor, prostitution, and†¦show more content†¦Joined the La Scala Ballet in 1829 and became the pupil of Perrot in 1833. In 1841, she joined the Paris Opera Ballet and danced the lead in Giselle. She became a prominent romantic era ballerina. She retired in 1853 an d she was known to wear the first blocked slipper to dance on pointe. Pas de Quatre dancer. The third dancer of this time was Lucille Grahn (1819- 1907) Danish dancer that studied with August Bournonville and danced the title role in his first production of La Sylphide. In 1839, she joined the Paris Opera ballet for three years. She often danced the sylph roles which she excelled in. She moved from Russia, to London, to Germany where she retired in 1856. She was known as the Danish Taglioni. She also danced in the Pas de Quatre. (page 131) 4. Flippo Taglioni a (1777- 1871) An Italian dancer, choreographer, and ballet master of the Romantic era, also father of Marie Taglioni. In 1822, he created the balled La Reception d une jeune nymphe a la cour de Terpischore for Marie. He also choreographed Le Dieu et la Bayadere in 1830 and La Fille du Danube in 1836. Created the 1st ever romantic ballet, La Sylphide. Another Romantic era choreographer Jules Perrot (1810- 1892) French Dancer and French Opera dancer. Left t the opera in 1884 and started choreographing in 1886. He choreographed and created Pas de Quatre and Giselle. He was the greatest male dancer of the romantic era. 5. The Pas de Quatre (1845) a significant ballet of the time as it was aShow MoreRelatedEpidemics Of The 19th Century2267 Words   |  10 PagesEpidemics of the 19th century were faced without the improved medical technologies that made the 20th and 21st-century epidemics rare and less lethal. It was in the 18th century that micro-organisms (viruses and bacteria) were discovered, but it was not until the late 19th century that the experiments of Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur disagreed with the spontaneous generation argument conclusively, crediting the germ theory and Robert Koch s discovery of micro-organisms as the cause of diseaseRead MoreNervousness in the 19th Century1283 Words   |  6 PagesGeorge M. Beard, â€Å"strictly deficiency or lack of nerve-force† (American Nervousness, vi) in the 19th century. Nervousness at the time, was commonly acknowledged and accepted, so much so that it was written into literature, such as many of Jane Austen’s works. M any doctors considered nervousness to be a â€Å"woman’s disease† meaning that women were the most afflicted by this condition. Doctors of the 19th century have found excuses to restrict, restrain, objectify and metaphorically and literally lock womenRead MoreGilman s The 19th Century959 Words   |  4 Pages Gilman’s audiences in the 19th century were bizarre to read such a book like Herland. Nobody really expected to read a novel about a world of only women and given male abilities. Women’s lives in the 19th century were not always as easy. They faced inequality, abuse, expectations and stereotypes. Gilman did not just wanted to write Herland for women, but wanted both genders to treat each other equally and have respect. It’s sadly to say but the stereotypes, unequally and expectationsRead MoreWomen in the Late 19th Century1210 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout nineteenth century Europe and leading into the twentieth century, the division and integration of equal rights and liberties towards both genders was a predominant issue. From the 1860’s and beyond, male suffrage was expanding due to working-class activism and liberal constitutionalism, however women were not included in any political participation and were rejected from many opportunities in the workforce. They were considered second-class citizens, expected to restrict their sphere ofRead MoreWomen During The 19th Century1350 Words   |  6 Pagesthe beginning of the 19th century, the gap between males and females was much larger than it is now. Back then men and women were usually assumed to have certain occupations. For example, in the 1950s women were â€Å"supposed† to become housewives and stay at home all day cleaning, cooking, or taking care of their children (Parry 1584). Men on the other hand, were suspected to go out and work all day doing whatever occupation they held. Due to the media uprising in the 19th century, women began to feelRead MoreFamily Capitalism And The 19th Century1576 Words   |  7 Pagescapitalism, which means long-live and long-lasting, they usually could not be passed on by more than one generation (Jones and Rose, 1993). Since the early 20th Century, among the world, Europe had a concentration of the largest ten and twenty c ompanies in countries that are under family control. For instance in France at the beginning of the 21st Century, only 15 families had controlled 33.8% of the total market value of listed corporate assets; and in Germany, family firms hold 17 of the largest hundredRead MoreWomen During The 19th Century1596 Words   |  7 Pageswidening horizon. Every struggle is a victory. Keller’s ideas embody the change that occurs in women’s roles in American literature. The first writings of 16th century America contained little reference to women at all. In the early 19th century, women play somewhat larger roles but remain only in supporting roles until later in the century when a shift takes place and women now hold leading roles as the heroines of stories. Not only does the character’s role change, but also beginning in the 1800sRead MoreOppression of Women in 19th Century Literature1564 Words   |  7 PagesOppression of Women in 19th Century Literature In the stories â€Å"The Jewelry† by Guy de Maupassant, â€Å"The Story of an Hour† by Kate Chopin, and â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, the female characters are unequal and less important than the men in society. The duties of women during this time period did not consist of much more than seeing to her husband’s needs and caring for the home and children. The authors show the lack of independence women were allowed in the 1800s, especiallyRead More The 19th Century Aesthetic Movement Essay947 Words   |  4 PagesThe 19th Century Aesthetic Movement The Arts and Crafts Movement is the main line of reform design in the 19th century that defines the period of its greatest development, roughly between 1875-1920. The Aesthetic Movement and Art Nouveau, whose roots were in the reaction to the Industrial Revolution in England in the middle of the 19th century, are the two major stylistic developments of this Movement’s philosophy (A Thing of Beauty 9). The term Aesthetic Movement refers to the introductionRead MoreGang Violence During The 19th Century901 Words   |  4 Pagesgangs have not always been about drugs and violence. In the early 19th century, gangs are not what people perceive them to be today. Gangs in the 19th century were volunteers with the fire department back in the Antebellum Period, which is the period before the civil war and after the War of 1812. As time went on and as the professional firemen forced the volunteers to break up, they started spreading apart. Then by the late 19th century, gangs started developing on the south side. This is said to be

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Auschwitz Essay examples - 2894 Words

Auschwitz: A Historical Overview of the Death Camp nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Holocaust is one of the most horrifying crimes against humanity. quot;Hitler, in an attempt to establish the pure Aryan race, decided that all mentally ill, gypsies, non supporters of Nazism, and Jews were to be eliminated from the German population. He proceeded to reach his goal in a systematic scheme.quot; (Bauer, 58) One of his main methods of exterminating these ‘undesirables was through the use of concentration and death camps. In January of 1941, Adolf Hitler and his top officials decided to make their final solution a reality. Their goal was to eliminate the Jews and the ‘unpure from the entire population. Auschwitz was the largest†¦show more content†¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;These camps were set up along railroad lines so that the prisoners would be conveniently close to their destination. Unfortunately, many prisoners didnt even survive the train ride to the camps. Herded like cattle, exhaustion, disease, and starvation end ed the long treacherous journey for many of the prisoners. On the trains, Jews were starved of food and water for days. Nearly 8% of the people did not even survive the ride to the camps. (Nyiszli, 37) nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;When they arrived at the camps, most of the families who were shipped out together, ended up being separated. Often, the transports were a sampling of what went on in the camps: cruelty by the officers, near starvation of those being transported, as well as fetid and unsanitary conditions. For the people who survived the trip, it was just the beginning of the living nightmare that they would face inside the walls of Auschwitz. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Jews were forced to obey the guards orders from the moment they arrived at the camps. quot;If they didnt, they would be beaten, put into solitary confinement, or shot.quot; (Nyiszli, 49) A prisoner said, quot;I can remember when I first arrived. The S.S. would take babies right out of their mothers arms, throw them in the air and then shoot them. This is when I realized that I had just entered hell.quot; (Nyiszli, 102) The prisoners hadShow MoreRelatedAuschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau1070 Words   |  4 PagesIntoduction During the Holocaust, Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau were two of the biggest death camps in all of Poland. Jews from all over Europe were sent to these two camps. In this article are sections about before Auschwitz became the camp, treatment, gas chambers, and the aftermath of the Holocaust. Located in Oswiecim, Poland (63 km from Krakow) both camps are now open for visitors to remember and experience the tragic event that happened only 75 years ago. Background DiscriminationRead MoreThe Horrors of Auschwitz986 Words   |  4 Pages Auschwitz is considered by the most the most inhumane concentration camp in world war two. At the beginning of 1940, Auschwitz was created, and it was under the rules of the SS (Concentration Camp). Auschwitz was the largest concentration camp during World War II, where over a million people died. Jews were treated horribly, and many were gassed. Auschwitz was called a death camp, for many reasons which included the deportation and selection process, medical experiments, and gas chambers. AuschwitzRead More Auschwitz Essay958 Words   |  4 PagesAuschwitz Auschwitz was one of the most infamous and largest concentration camp known during World War II. It was located in the southwestern part of Poland commanded by Rudolf Hà ¶ss. Auschwitz was first opened on June 14, 1940, much later than most of the other camps. It was in Auschwitz that the lives of so many were taken by methods of the gas chamber, crematoriums, and even from starvation and disease. These methods took several hundreds and sometimes more than a thousand lives a day. TheRead MoreAuschwitz Essay840 Words   |  4 PagesAuschwitz Auschwitz, located thirty-seven miles west of Krakow, was the first concentration camp where Jewish people worked to death, or were automatically killed. This camp, compared to all the other camps, tortured the most people. At the camp there was a place called the Black Wall, this was where the people were executed. In March of 1941, there was another camp that started its building. This second camp was called Auschwitz II, or Birkenau. It was located 1.9 miles away from AuschwitzRead MoreSurvival in Auschwitz1252 Words   |  6 PagesLevi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz; The Nazi Assault on Humanity. 1st edition. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996. I. Survival in Auschwitz is the unique autobiographical account of how a young man endured the atrocities of a Nazi death camp and lived to tell the tale. Primo Levi, a 24-year-old Jewish chemist from Turin Italy, was captured by the fascist militia in December 1943 and deported to Camp Buna-Monowitz in Auschwitz. The trip by train took 4 long days in a jam-packed boxcarRead MoreRudy at Auschwitz2740 Words   |  11 PagesRudy at Auschwitz Rudy and his family stayed in the Ileresiendstadt ghetto for almost two years. Then in 1944, they were told to prepare to move. In the selection below, Rudy describes what happened next. In March or April, 1944, we got the dreaded notice that we had been selected for resettlement farther east. The train cars they took us in were actually cattle cars. We entered the cars and sat on our baggage. There was not very much room between us and the roof of the cattle car. Our carRead More Survival In Auschwitz Essay541 Words   |  3 Pagesclothes, in short, of everything he possesses: he will be a hollow man, reduced to suffering and needs, forgetful of dignity and restraint, for he who loses all often easily loses himself.† This short quote is taken from Primo Levi’s â€Å"Survival in Auschwitz†. It depicts a true story of Primo Levi during the Holocaust, who was relocated to an extermination camp after beginning a great life after college. Primo was captured with a resistant group from Italy. He used his college education and degree inRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Auschwitz 1502 Words   |  7 Pagescaptured him leading to his 11 months in Auschwitz . 174517 became his new way of identifying himself because it was believed only a man is worthy of a name. Survival in Auschwitz is his first hand account of his struggles to maintain a sense of humanity when his surroundings are trying to do the opposite. For Primo the war never ended- after being liberated by the Russians, Primo Levi continues to battle a psychological war that originated from his time in Auschwitz, leading to the transition into hisRead MoreAuschwitz Concentration Camp1343 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Dalton Sanders May 12, 2014 Hogan 5th Period English I Auschwitz: The Death Camp Thesis: Built by the Nazis as both a concentration and a death camp, Auschwitz was the largest of the Nazi camps, the most diverse and intricate camp of all, and the main center for the death of Jews during the Holocaust. Outline I. Largest of Nazi Death Camps A. Consisted of three camps B. Thirty-seven sub camps C. Seven gas chambers and crematories II. Most diverse and intricate camp A. DecorationsRead MoreEssay on The Horrors of Auschwitz 1380 Words   |  6 Pagesinscribed above the Auschwitz concentration camp read; Arbeit Macht Frei,† meaning, â€Å"work brings freedom.† These deceiving words gave unsuspecting prisoners hope that they could get out of the most destructive concentration camp during the entire Holocaust. This concentration camp would kill over one million people. Auschwitz will be fully analyzed, starting with the early stages of Auschwitz, then the Jews and the horrors of Auschwitz, and finally the final days of Auschwitz. The events that took

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Ocean Discovery Teaches Animal Cruelty Essay Example For Students

Ocean Discovery Teaches Animal Cruelty Essay At Six Flags Marine World in Vallejo, CA a new exhibit was opened to provide an interactive experience with the parks residents. These Ocean Discovery exhibits now include a 200,000 gallon tank containing three to five of the parks 14 Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins. The dolphins have been removed from their natural habitats deprived from an annexed refuge and placed in petting pools poorly located and smaller than that of an average living room. In these petting pools, dolphins are feed buy the visitors who reward the mammals by giving them fish in return for letting the humans touch them. The most dominate of the dolphins and those most willing to accept human touch receives the most human attention in return getting the most fish. In some cases visitors have been observed feeding french fries, sandwiches, and even left over soda to the dolphins. One report observed dolphins in a petting pool so obese the blow holes which the mammals expel air from had been covered by fat cells To escape the constant feeding and noise some parks have added refuges where the dolphins may go if they do not chose to interact however no such refuge has been added to the pool at Marine World. The dolphins must interact continuously through out the twelve hour day of the park and then many hours after closing as they are put through medical checks, pool maintenance, training Robinett 2 and feeding. Marine World representatives state that the dolphins could avoid interaction by swimming to the edge of the pool where the visitors were not allowed access. On a recent visit to the park, people were observed on all sides of the pool. They continue this work day with out breaks as visitors have non-stop access during the parks operating hours seven days a week. The pool Marine World had created for the dolphins is located directly below two of its largest and busiest attractions, two roller coasters called Vertical Velocity and Roar which not only brings noise levels into the unpleasant scenario but sends a rather noticeable vibration through the ground with each pass of the rides car. Unfortunately for the dolphins, this location also does not include much shade, is close to the nearby interstate, parking lot, and fairgrounds. Legislation on how these pools are kept would, their occupants treated and visitors educated, petting pools such as these will continue to be harmful to the dolphins that inhabit them. Until these laws are passed for better protection and education, the wellbeing of the dolphins will be put aside for financial gain. Works Cited Bulwa, Demian. Marine World Offers Hands-on Dolphin Encounter Animal rights activists denounce latest attraction. San Francisco Chronicle. 27 January 2005. . Cuff, Denis. Interactive Marine Animal Exhibits Draw Detractors. Myrtle Beach Online. 03 May 2005. . The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society and The Humane Society of the United States. Biting the Hand That Feeds. Spring 2003. . In these petting pools, dolphins are feed buy the visitors who reward the mammals by giving them fish in return for letting the humans touch them. The most dominate of the dolphins and those most willing to accept human touch receives the most human attention in return getting the most fish. In some cases visitors have been observed feeding french fries, sandwiches, and even left over soda to the dolphins. One report observed dolphins in a petting pool so obese the blow holes which the mammals expel air from had been covered by fat cells To escape the constant feeding and noise some parks have added refuges where the dolphins may go if they do not chose to interact however no such refuge has been added to the pool at Marine World. The dolphins must interact continuously through out the twelve hour day of the park and then many hours after closing as they are put through medical checks, pool maintenance, training Robinett 2 and feeding. Marine World representatives state that the dolphins could avoid interaction by swimming to the edge of the pool where the visitors were not allowed access. .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 , .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 .postImageUrl , .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 , .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8:hover , .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8:visited , .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8:active { border:0!important; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8:active , .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8 .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .udb25693e79b19e139275b09aeebdf9c8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The wild west Essay On a recent visit to the park, people were observed on all sides of the pool. They continue this work day with out .

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Twelfth Night Comedy Essays - Viola, Twelfth Night, Olivia

Twelfth Night Comedy The Twelfth Night is a Shakespearean romantic comedy that is filled with plenty of humor and lots of deception. It is frequently read as a play about masking, about the conscious and unconscious assumption of false identities and about levels of self-knowledge and self-deception; this theme is played out prominently through Viola's transsexual disguise (Kahn 43). The play is comprised of five acts and numerous scenes. However, I am only going to touch on one of these scenes in my paper. The scene I chose to write about is act V scene I. I chose this scene because it is the one that interested me the most, and I feel that it is also the scene with the most hidden meanings. Act V scene I, in my opinion, is a very complicated scene. I am going to discuss the part of the scene just before Sebastian enters, with Viola disguised as Cesario. Viola, in this part, is surrounded by many people all of whom think she is someone other than the person she actually is. This is where Viola/Cesario speaking to Olivia protests undoubtedly her love for Orsino by saying, "After him I love, More than I love these eyes, more than my life (Twelfth Night 5.1. 134)." Olivia, after hearing this, is confused and protests to Viola that they are married by saying, "Whither, my lord? Cesario, husband, stay (Twelfth Night 5.1. 141)!" Viola/Cesario denies this and is shocked by the accusation. Olivia continues to press the issue by getting the priest to confirm the marriage. It is at this point, when Orsino hears and believes the priest's confirmation of the marriage, that I feel he expresses signs of homosexuality towards Viola whom he still believes is Cesario. Orsino becomes filled with anger and jealousy towards Viola/Cesario saying, "Farewell, and take her, but direct thy feet where thou and I henceforth may never meet. (Twelfth Night 5.1. 166-167)." At some level, Cesario is a homosexual object choice for both Olivia and Orsino; at another, a heterosexual one (Kahn 44). I believe that at this part of the scene Viola/Cesario is experiencing some form of an identity crisis. Although she is a woman who has deceived everyone into believing she is a man, she is now becoming bewildered by a strange turn of events. She's being accused of denying having known Antonio and having beaten up Sir Toby Belch and Sir Andrew. She is being accused of acts that she has not done and has no recollection of ever doing. The reason she denies all of these wrong doings is because her brother, Sebastian, is responsible. This casts doubt in her mind as to who she really is and what is happening. Sebastian enters the scene and his entrance, in a way, relieves Viola of all the accusations she has endured. It was Sebastian who Antonio has been looking for; it was Sebastian who beat up Sir Toby Belch and Sir Andrew, and finally it was Sebastian who has married Olivia. We come to realize this when he says: I am sorry, madam, I have hurt your kinsman: But had it been the brother of my blood, I must have done no less with wit and safety. I do perceive it hath offended you: Pardon me, sweet one, even for the vows We made each other but so late ago. (Twelfth Night 5.1. 207-213) Antonio! O my dear Antonio, How have the hours rack'd and tortur'd me, Since I have lost thee! (Twelfth Night 5.1. 216-218) At this point everyone is stunned not knowing who is who. In a sense, everyone feels as if they are seeing double. It's ironic since Sebastian and Viola are twins. Once Viola and Sebastian realized they were brother and sister Viola feels as though she is free to cast off her masculine disguise and let everyone know that she is really a woman as she talks about putting back on her feminine clothes or her "maiden weeds (Twelfth Night 5.1. 253)." Karen Greif says that the recognition of identity is at first an experience involving only the reunited twins; but, as the facts of their kinship are brought forth, the circle of awareness expands to include Orsino and Olivia. They appreciate for the first time their shared folly in desiring the unobtainable and both discover true love in unexpected forms by sharing in the recognition of the twins' identities (53). Sebastian then turns to Olivia in an attempt to explain exactly what was going on and he

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Capital Punishment Essays (4026 words) - Penology,

Capital Punishment Why Capital Punishment Should be Abolished Unlike popular belief, the death penalty does not act as a deterrent to criminals. As stated by Alfred Blumstein, Expert after expert and study after study has shown the lack of correlation between the treat of the death penalty and the occurrence of violent crimes. (Blumstein 68) Isaac Ehrlich's study on the limiting effects of capital punishment in America reveals this to the public. The study spans twenty-five years, from 1957 till 1982, and shows that in the first year the study was conducted, there were 8060 murders and 6 executions. However, in the last year of the study there were 22,520 murders committed and only 1 execution performed. (Blumstein 54) This clearly shows that many violent criminals are not afraid of the capital punishment. Abolitionists believe the offenders should be required to compensate the victim's family with the offender's own income from employment or community service. There is no doubt that someone can do more alive than dead. By working, the criminal inadvert-ently pays back society and also their victim and/or victim's family. There is no reason for the criminal to receive any compensation for the work they do, because money is of no jail time. This could be considered a form of slavery to some, but it is no different from the days of being sent to the yard to break stone. One of the most well-known examples of the criminal contributing to the betterment of society is the case Leopld and Loeb. They were nineteen years old when they committed The Crime of the Century. In 1924, they kidnapped and murdered a fourteen-year-old boy just to see how it would feel to kill someone. They were both spared the death penalty and sentenced to life imprisonment. (Bedau 78) Together their accomplishments included working in hospitals, teaching the illiterate how to read, creating a correspondence school, writing a grammar book, and making significant developments in the World War II Malaria Project.(Bedau 193) An inestimable amount of people were directly helped by Leopold and Loeb, Both of tem made a conscious commitment to atone their crimes by serving others.(Bedau 217) The most widely used form of execution has been electrocution. With this method of executing a prisoner, the individual is strapped to a chair along with electrodes attached all over the body. The executioner then proceeds to throw the switch sending vast amounts of electricity flowing throughout the prisoner. During this period, the prisoners flesh burns and the body shakes violently from the overdose of electricity. When it is all over, smoke is often seen coming from the head of the corpse. (Ernest Van den Haag 135) Officials often defend this punishment as not being cruel and unusual, but how can they defend the opinion in the case of John Evans who was executed by electrocution in 1983? According to witnesses at the scene of the death of Mr. Evans, he was given three charges of electricity over a period of fourteen minutes. After the first and second charges, Mr. Evans was still conscious and smoke was coming from all over his body, as a result from his flesh burning. An official at the prison even tries to stop the execution on account of it being cruel punishment, but the man was unsuccessful. Witnesses later called the whole incident a barbaric ritual. (Haag 221) Another method of execution is the gas chamber; during this procedure a prisoner is put in a closed chamber and forced to inhale lethal fumes from a sulfuric acid and a cyanide chemical reaction. (Haag 243) According to a statement given by the U.S. Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens concerning the 1992 execution of Donald Harding, there did not seem to be any civilized aspect of the gas chamber method of executing prisoners. (Haag 259) According to the report, Harding tried to hold his breath inside the chamber. When he finally began to take in fumes, his body started going into convulsions and the muscles and veins under his skin were twitching in a wave-like motion. This execution took over eight minutes to complete, and Mr. Harding was writhing in pain for most of the time. According to officials, Harding did not fall

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Summary paper with outline Essays

Summary paper with outline Essays Summary paper with outline Essay Summary paper with outline Essay Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Outline of the Article Energy vehicles are becoming increasingly popular these days Research on new energy for automobiles is not new and has been in existence in china since 2001 Countries continue to encourage new energy vehicles 2008 is the year that saw a full bloom of new energy vehicles in China New energy technology as unconventional energy Energies that are still under development and utilization Energy that is not the usual traditional energy such as fossil fuel Include wind energy, biomass energy, nuclear fusion, solar energy, and geothermal New energy vehicle is one that uses unconventional sources of energy Vehicles can come with newer technology principles as well as new structures Main problem is researching how to use some of the unconventional energy sources Electric vehicles need more battery capacity and complex electric engine controls Name: Course: Lecturer: Date: Summary of the Article 1. Traced back, exploring the new energy vehicle’s development way The article â€Å"Exploring the history of new energy vehicles† by Shuying Li suggests that new energy vehicles are becoming more and more popular these days. The article traces the start of the new energy vehicles. He further suggests that research on new energy for automobiles is not new and has been in existence in china since 2001. This presents the new vehicles that are increasing in the market with an aim of reducing energy consumption. This also presents the development in the automobile industry where engines first used steam energy. More and more focus on developing new energy for automobile industry continues to emerge in many parts of the world. China has seen a class of research in new energy vehicles that was incorporated in their 863-science subject (Li 1). More so, countries continue to encourage new energy vehicles and lay strategies that aim at reducing the use of gasoline fuel in vehicles and encouraging hydrogen as a better fuel for vehicles. Governments have laid more strategies as well as emphasized the importance of developing new energy vehicles. 2008 is the year that saw a full bloom of new energy vehicles in China, where even management rules for the production of new energy vehicles have taken effect. More research has been introduced in the country. 2. Present situation Currently, facts suggest that new energy vehicle technology has a broad future ahead, but one cannot be sure that it will be ideal. Thus, it requires a factual analysis in order to understand the present situation. In order to have a clear view of the present situation about new energy vehicles, it is crucial to understand what it means to say a new energy vehicle or technology. 2.1. What is the new energy technology? New energy technology can as well be referred to as unconventional energy. This means an energy that is not the usual traditional energy such as fossil fuel. It especially refers to those energies that are still under development and utilization but new, or those in research institutions. Some of them include wind energy, biomass energy, nuclear fusion, solar energy, and geothermal amongst others. The energy could also be in existence, but its use not fully realized, such as how to fuse wind energy in vehicles. 2.2. What is new energy vehicle? The article says that new energy vehicle is one that uses unconventional sources of energy such as hydrogen or combines both conventional and unconventional energy sources (Li 2). Therefore, the vehicles can come with newer technology principles as well as new structures. The main problem is researching how to use some of the unconventional energy sources in vehicles. Electric vehicles are considered the future most widely used new energy vehicles. Currently, electric vehicles are the most widely known of the new energy vehicles currently. However, the main problem in electric vehicles is the battery capacity as well as electric engine controls. The latest focus in new energy vehicle technology is use of thermal magnetic oscillation power technology, which can be used in portable power equipments including vehicles. While in use, it could be turned into an alternative of hydrogen fuel battery. However, it is currently in its early stage development. Therefore, it would be hard to know on the future status of new energy vehicles. However, by looking at the current situation where more research on different alternative energies is underway, the future is prospective. Work Cited Shuying, Li. Exploring History of New Energy Vehicles. Advances in Automation and Robotics, 2.123, 2011: 141-146. Print.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

2-5 paragraphs on the history of the broadcasting of the U.S. open and Essay

2-5 paragraphs on the history of the broadcasting of the U.S. open and then 2 other seperate ones on the history of the broadcasting of the masters golf tournament - Essay Example n able to broadcast the tournament live in HD in fact, in the year 203, both NBC as well as ESPN planned an unprecedented total of over 35 hours of combined live coverage of the U.S open. The Masters Golf tournament can be said to be a long time spring stable when it comes to the sports TV calendar. The Augusta National Golf club has over the years partnered with CBS and they can be said to have a unique relationship (Gomery, 18). This is because CBS often pays lower than market value for the broadcasting rights. The first time the Masters were televised was in the year 1956 (Gomery 5). CBS has been able to provide the coverage for the masters since it was first gotten in the year 1956. ESPN has, however; also taken the rights doe broadcasting the masters and it has expanded its coverage to around 5 hours each day. The scheduled live team has increased from 2.5 hours to around 18

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Project management week 7 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Project management week 7 - Essay Example There is need for dedication of all the stakeholders in the company so that these opportunities can benefit the company. As a company we believed in order to grasp these opportunities there is the need to commit the resources that will be used to venture into them. It believed resources can do marvelous things in making sure that these opportunities and goals of the business are achieved easily. Also, adequate resources will mean that the company will have a competitive advantage as compared to the rivals (Cavusgil, 2009). Furthermore, a market opportunity will present itself service or product in the company meets the newly identified need or of a market with a new or enhanced solution better than the competition. While assessing and identifying the opportunity, the managers and the executive should analyze real as well as perceived value of the opportunity, the competitive environment, risks and returns of the possible opportunity, creation and length of opportunity. This opportunity assessment will answer the many questions that include the potential market the company will venture in order to reap the fruits of this opportunity (Zisa, 2011). The opportunity in this case is the new video markets in China. The video industry in China has been growing in the past two no video company has entered this lucrative markets. Therefore, this implies this is the right time the company should enter this market bearing in market that China will present the company with other opportunities. Furthermore, venturing into China market with our video products is a suitable market. First, China presents a promising economy in the world that will boost the video business. The China’s environment will boost our business global competitiveness and sell more products. The country has extensive infrastructure that will promote the growth of the business towards attaining its goals. Furthermore, China has friendly investment policies to foreign firms. These policies

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Nathan Hale Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nathan Hale - Essay Example To be able to identify a terrorist, we must be able to define the terrorist whether it is an individual, an organization, or a sponsoring state. Freedom fighters are generally defined as a local organization, possibly military or pari-military, that is fighting a military force that is believed to be illegally occupying the local territory (Ash 2001). Freedom fighters were instrumental in impeding Nazi aggression across Europe during WWII. Guerrilla warfare is fought by small bands of irregular soldiers usually against an oppressive government in their own country, and generally restricts its targets to military and government facilities. The FBI, CIA, State Department, and United Nations all agree that to attain the label of terrorist they must target the civilian population (Beres n.d.). It may be an individual, a group, an organization, or a country that funds and advocates terrorism. Terrorism must use misappropriated violence or the threat of violence against the civilian populace to alarm or intimidate a government. The Department of Defense further defines terrorism as, "...violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (Beres n.d.).

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Online Reservation Systems Computer Science Essay

The Online Reservation Systems Computer Science Essay The literature review phase is the one of the main stage that we need to focus on, so far the stage explains the main aims of the system and how the system is going to operate and the benefit of the system over environment. Firstly, Travel agent hotel suppliers will have way in to the travel agent extranet system to load room rates and allotments, instead of keeping rate and allotment contract manually. The travel agency application system is an online system that which let customers to make their reservation comfortably from anywhere. Thats All customers should be able to way in the agency services information 24 hours a day. Because of the rapid spread of the internet, the hotel adopted a reservation system that is a powerful factor to gain new sales. The travel agency began to present their own on-line reservation system. The travel agency gived some hotel with reservation systems that will normally liked to the various programs and special offers which adds to their ability to capture the travel and leisure market. These are some plan that the online travel agencies and travel agents cannot achieve because of the limitation in their services. However, this system also feels drawbacks. Most of the hotel sites do not allow for easy price comparison, some will only book reservations on the hotel which have the site. (Kearney Robinson, 2004). 2.3 Why online reservation system As a commercial medium, the Web offers a number of advantages for all the customer and companies. From the customer point of view, using the web instead of a traditional approach call for tickets or go to a travel agency means way in to a greater amount of information and also more flexibility in choosing, analyzing and comparing the offers. Having more choices with just a click away helps customers find a better deal, in possible less time. For the companies, the use of Web means decrease costs for information processing, reduced costs to suppliers, the possibility of building stronger customer relationships by having customers interact directly with the web site, the possibility of creating user profiles to be used in marketing development and also an easy way of information partnership, involving the cooperation between different companies. Travel Agent Reservation System to enhance  effectiveness in keeping hotel contracting room and allotment updated in real-time manner. 2.4 Online Travel Agency There are many traditional travel agencies that are operating on-line, but only insufficient are known by the passengers. The transaction between the travel agents and hotels is through the commission base. However, because of the direct booking of other passengers the commission basis is slow diminishing and they have to rate the customers for the service fee. The usual offers they give be contingent on their strategy and advertisement and not part of the hotels (Kearney Robinson, 2004). 2.5 Guda Travel Agency Application System Services The travel agency online application service will need the users city of destination, desired hotel quality, check-in date, and check-out date. It will departure the hotels that match the criteria, and also return the hotel name, address, check-in time, check-out time, cost per night, and total cost of the length of stay. Travel Simplified has its own database with the hotels and charge. It also has a Java application to have the hotels and rates. The Web service will need to use the tools in Application Developer Integration Edition to create a service from the application so that users can search hotels for their travels whenever they want. 2.6 Reservation systems analysis Internet presence and online application are the two business models most frequently used by the travel reservation systems we studied. The services offered in the two models are related: in Internet presence, the customers find information about the service; some examples are check hotel in Internet presence and book hotel. There are also two different services, information about special offers in Internet presence and the possibility to save the itineraries already defined in online store an itinerary consists of a hotel, usually round trip and possibly of a reserved room in one or more hotels. 2.7 User value model of a Guda Travel Agency Application System Landvogt (2004) explained online booking engines as tools to store, publish and update the dynamic data availability and prices, and moreover provide the users with a regular reservation process. A specific characteristic of the guda travel agency application system is that users can make and see the changes in reservation status online. But users can only see descriptions and pictures of hotels, sometimes rates but they could not check availability and make bookings online. This means that all business models which provide the possibility for an online  booking electronic booking service, electronic travel agent, electronic market place, and flexible comparison shopping services are compatible with above mentioned definition of website quality. 2.8 Customer needs One of the main importances in developing this application system for Guda Travel Agency application system is to satisfy the customer needs. One must remember that electronic commerce has to compete with the real-life methods of making reservation and completing customer transactions. Customers can choose between different reservations methods electronic or real-life and they will always prefer the one which best gratify their need. 2.8.1 Customer needs presentation In the case of online reservation systems we identified six main important customer needs: Lack of difficulty system status information error tolerance and system stability â‚ ¬Ã‚  query refinement for achieving customers goal â‚ ¬Ã‚  customer profiles Lack of difficulty Lack of difficulties is one of the major problems for customers. The user interface of the online systems should be designed in such a way that all services are easy to understand and use. It can often happen that customers may want to use a service, but they dont know how to do it or the user interface does not allow them to do so. It is the case of the registration process when using online travel reservations. This system Guda Travel Agency Application system allow timetable consultation only after registering which can take quite a lot of time, or they allow consultation but there is no price information before registration. System status information and feed forward The status of the system are accessing database, computing solutions must be always indicated to the customer. Different mechanisms should be employed to give clear feedback to the customer, for error messages, data input required, no solutions found, etc. When possible, the messages should contain explanations and provide suggestions for future actions e.g. no solution was found, customer has to try to enlarge the domains for his travel constraints: dates, hotel, and time. Error tolerance and system stability An easy and efficient way out should be provided in case of errors. This makes customers feel more confident and at ease. In the case of a customer mistake, it is important that the reservation process is restarted from a point close to the one where the mistake was generated, the customer shouldnt be sent back to the beginning. Query refinement for achieving customers goal It often happens that customers are not satisfied with the first solutions they get from the online hotel reservation system. In this case, most of the current systems allow customers to search for hotel next day, or on a newly defined day. If they are still not happy with what they get, they can come back to the query definition and change their input data. This way of interaction is quite heavy and time-consuming, using a lot of the system and customer resources. In the second part of our paper, I propose a new interaction model in which the customers can modify their initial queries directly in the result table. It is easier for customers to find exactly what they want or to find out if what they want exists or not, starting from possible existing solutions. Customer profiles The use of customer profiles in online reservation systems is connected to the registration process. The same question arises, when is the best moment to ask customers to register and/or to create their own profiles. The systems I studied have different approaches, but most of them leave the profile creation at customers control, they can do it when and if they want. The customer profiles are currently used in the same way by all the systems, but each system has its own profile implementation, which makes difficult a possible communication and data interchange. A future improvement in online travel industry would be a standard personalization technique to be adopted by all online systems providing in this way both efficiency and interoperability. 2.9 PROCEDUREs for electronic commerce Commerce in the real world is a very rich set of interaction procedures with a very complex set of constraints. The protocols used in electronic commerce systems must respect at least some of the real world models and add also new interaction techniques. Flexibility combined with ease of use and understandings are primary requirements, as rigid and restricted protocols lead to frustration for both users and developers. 2.10 Customers application PROCEDURE All existing online travel systems offer consumer application procedure. The customer must interact directly with the system in order to receive results for his query. A general model for the protocols offered by the online travel systems for booking hotel is the following: [register] input data (travel constraints) see results evaluate book The registration step can be sometimes avoided customers have the possibility to use the system as guests or to register only if they want to make a booking. Adriana Jurca, Adriana Jurca Dmt-isr 1999 programmings and techniques for developing the system Php is an extensively used general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, php code is embedded direct to the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a php processor module, which generates the web page document. As a specific programming language, php code is processed by an interpreter application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and producing program output on its standard output channel. It also function as a graphical application. Php is existing as a processor for most modern web servers and as standalone interpreter on most operating systems and computing platforms. 2.11.1 History of PHP Php was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995  and has been in continuous development ever since. The main implementation of PHP is now produced by the php clicks and serves as the de facto standard for PHP as there is no formal specification. Php is free software released under the php License. In other to used php they is need for basic understanding the following those are bellow: 1. HTML or XHTML 2. Java Scrip 2.11.2 USES of php. Php is a general main scripting language that is especially suited to server-side web development where php generally runs on a web server. Any php code in a requested file is executed by the php runtime, usually to create dynamic web page content. It can also be used for command line scripting and client-side GUI applications. Php can be deployed on most web servers, many operating systems and platforms, and can be used with many relational database management systems. It is available free of charge, and the php clicks provides the complete source code for users to build, customize and extend for their own use. Php primarily present as a filter, taking input from a file or stream containing text and/php instructions and outputs another stream of data; most commonly the output will be html. 2.11.3 FEATURES OF PHP Access Logging With the way in logging capabilities of php, users can maintain their own hit counting and logging. It doesnt use the systems central access log files in any way, and it provides real-time access monitoring. The Log Viewer Script provides a quick summary of the way in to a set of pages owned by an individual user. Access Control A develop in web based configuration screen handles access control configuration. It is possible to create setting rules for some web pages owned by a certain person which place various restrictions on who can view these pages and how they will be viewed. The Pages can be password protected, completely restricted, logging disabled and more based on the clients domain, browser, e-mail address or even the referring document. SQL Support -the php supports embedding SQL queries directly in .html files. File Upload Support -And It lets users upload files to a web server and provides the actual Mime decoding to make this work and also provides the additional framework to do something useful with the uploaded file once it has been received. HTTP based authentication control the php can be used to create customized http based authentication mechanisms for the Apache web server. Variables, Arrays, Associative Arrays -the php supports typed variables, arrays and even Perl-like associative arrays. And with these can all be passed from one web page to another using either GET or POST method forms. Conditionals, While Loops -the php supports a full featured C like scripting language. You can have if/then/elseif/else/endif conditions as well as while loops and switch or case statements to guide the logical flow of how the html page should be displayed. Extended Regular Expressions Regular expressions are freely used for pattern matching, pattern substitutions and general string manipulation. And then the php supports all common regular expression operations. HTTP Header Control The ability to have web pages send customized http headers based on some condition is essential for high-level web site design. A frequently use is to send a Location URL header to redirect the calling client to some other URL. It can also be used to turn off caching or manipulate the last update header of pages. ISP Safe Mode support php supports a unique Safe Mode which makes it safe to have multiple users run php scripts on the same server. 2.11.4 Advantages of php You can develop web applications in php as compile and link is eliminated in php scripting language. The Php applications are very stable and do not depend on the browser technologies unlike JavaScript applications which depend on browsers. Php has excellent database connectivity to all SQL database servers. php has partial support for Object oriented features Php runs on all UNIXs, Linux, Windows 95/NT/2000 and is more powerful than ASP, JSP and others. The Php has a very large user base and developer base. 2.11.4 PHP AND HTML Php and html interact a lot because the php has the ability to generate html and the html has the ability to pass the information to php my sql MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. Advantages of MySQL MySQL is a popular database with Web developers. Its speed and small size make it ideal for a Web site. Its fast. The main aim of the folks who developed MySQL was speed. Thus, the software was designed from the beginning with speed in mind. Its Inexpensive. MySQL is free under the open source GPL license, and the price for a commercial license is reasonable. Its Easy to use. And then you can build and interact with a MySQL database by using a few simple statements in the SQL language, which is the standard language for communicating with RDBMSs. How MySQL and PHP work together 2.12.1 The Main Features of MySQL Is written in C and C++ It easily uses multiple CPUs if they are available. Provides transactional and non transactional storage engines. Relatively easy to add another storage engine. This is useful if you want to add an SQL interface to an in house database. A very fast thread based memory allocation system. Very fast joins using an optimized one-sweep multi join. In memory hash tables which are used as temporary tables. SQL functions are implemented using a highly optimized class library and should be as fast as possible. The server is available as a separate program for use in a client/server networked environment. Tested with a broad range of di ¬Ã¢â€š ¬erent compilers. Works on many deferent platforms 2.13 What Is a Web Server Web server is a software application that listens for client connection a specific network port. When a connection is made, the Web server then waits request from the client application. The client is usually a Web browser, but it could be a Web site indexing utility, or perhaps an interactive telnet  session. The resources request, usually a request to send the contents of a file stored on the server, is a phrased in some version of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Although the Web servers primary purpose is to distribute information from a central computer, modern Web servers perform other tasks as well. Before the file transfer, most modern Web servers send descriptive information about the requested resource, instructing the client how to interpret or format the resource. 2.13.1 Features of web sever Many Web servers perform user authentication and data encryption to permit applications like online credit card purchasing. Another common feature of Web servers is that they provide database access on behalf of the client, eliminating the need for the client to use a full-featured database client application. Apache provides all of these features 2.13.2 Apache http sever of this project The Apache HTTP Server Project is an effort to develop and maintain an open-source http server for modern operating systems including Windows 7. The main aim of this project is to provide a secure, efficient and extensible server that provides http services in sync with the current http standards. 2.13.3 THE APACHE http server Apache is a powerful, flexible, http compliant web server Its Implements the latest protocols, including http Its highly configurable and extensible with third-party modules It provides full source code and comes with an unrestrictive license It runs on Windows NT/9x, Netware 5.x and above, OS/2, and most versions of Unix, as well as several other operating systems is actively being developed it encourages user feedback through new ideas, bug reports and patches it implements many frequently requested features 2.13.4 Features of apache server DBM databases for authentication: Usually allows you to easily set up password protected pages with enormous numbers of authorized users, without bogging down the server. Customized responses to errors and problems: Allows you to set up files, or even CGI scripts, which are returned by the server in response to errors and problems, e.g. setup a script to intercept  500 Server Errors and it perform on-the-fly diagnostics for both users and yourself. Multiple Directory Index directives Allows you to say  Directory index.html index, which allows the server to either send back  index.html  or run  index when a directory URL is requested, whichever it finds in the directory. Unlimited flexible URL rewriting and aliasing The Apache has no fixed limit on the numbers of Aliases and Redirects which may be declared in the config files. And then In addition, a powerful rewriting engine can be used to solve most URL manipulation problems. Content negotiation the ability to automatically serve clients of varying sophistication and HTML level compliance, with documents which offer the best representation of information that the client is capable of accepting. Virtual Hosts This allows the server to distinguish between requests made to different IP addresses or names mapped to the same machine. And is also offers dynamically configurable mass virtual hosting. Configurable Reliable Piped Logs You can configure Apache to generate logs in the format that you want. Apache can send log files to a pipe, allowing for log rotation, hit filtering, real-time splitting of multiple hosts into separate logs, Tools require for implementing the system Dreamweaver: Adobe Dreamweaver is a web development application created by Macromedia, and is now developed by Adobe Systems, which acquired Macromedia in 2005. The Dreamweaver is available for both Mac and Windows operating systems. The Recent versions have incorporated support for web technologies such as CSS, JavaScript, and various server-side scripting languages and frameworks including ASP, ColdFusion, and PHP. Adobe Flash Adobe Flash is a multimedia platform acquired by Macromedia and currently developed and distributed by Adobe Systems. Since 1996 flash has become a popular method for adding animation and interactivity to web pages. The Flash is commonly used to create animation, advertisements, and various web page Flash components, to integrate video into web pages, and more recently, to develop rich Internet applications. And the Flash can be manipulated vector and raster graphics, and supports bidirectional streaming of audio and video. And It contains a scripting language called Action Script.   Adobe Photoshop The Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and Published by Adobe System. And it is the current market leader for commercial bitmap and image manipulation software, and is the flagship product of Adobe Systems. And It has been described as an industry standard for graphics professionals and was one of the early killer applications on the Macintosh, later also for MS Windows.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Minor capacity judgement Essay

Mohori Bibee and another Vs. Dharmodas Ghose Mohori Bibee and another Vs. Dharmodas Ghose Options Dock Print PDF Court :  Kolkata Reported in :  (1903)30IndianAppeals114 Judge :  Lord Macnaghten; Lord Davey; Lord Lindley; Sir Ford North; Sir Andrew Scoble; Sir Andrew Wilson, JJ. Decided On :  Mar-04-1903 Acts :  Indian Evidence Act, 1877 – Section 115; Indian Contract Act – Sections 41, 19, 64, 65 Appellant :  Mohori Bibee and another Respondent :  Dharmodas Ghose Advocate for Respondent :  W. W. Box, Adv. Advocate for Appellant :  Watkins; Lempriere, Advs. Judgment: SIR FORD NORTH, J. On July 20, 1895, the respondent, Dhurmodas Ghose, executed a mortgage in favour of Brahmo Dutt, a money-lender carrying on business at Calcutta and elsewhere, to secure the repayment of Rs. 20,000 at 12 per cent. interest on some houses belonging to the respondent. The amount actually advanced is in dispute. At that time the respondent was an infant; and he did not attain twenty-one until the month of September following. Throughout the transaction Brahmo Dutt was absent from Calcutta, and the whole business was carried through for him by his attorney, Kedar Nath Mitter, the money being found by Dedraj, the local manager of Brahmo Dutt. While considering the proposed advance, Kedar Nath received information that the respondent was still a minor; and on July 15, 1895, the following letter was written and sent to him by Bhupendra Nath Bose, an attorney:— â€Å"Dear Sir,—I am instructed by S. M. Jogendranundinee Dasi, the mother and guardian appointed by the High Court under its letters patent of the person and property of Babu Dhurmodas Ghose, that a mortgage of the properties of the said Babu Dhurmodas Ghose is being prepared from your office. I am instructed to give you notice, which I hereby do, that the said Babu Dhurmodas Ghose is still an infant under the age of twenty-one, and any one lending money to him will do so at his own risk and peril. † Kedar Nath positively denied the receipt of any such letter; but the Court of first instance and the Appellate Court both held that he did personally receive it on July 15; and the evidence is conclusive upon the point. On the day on which the mortgage was executed, Kedar Nath got the infant to sign a long declaration, which, he had prepared for him, containing a statement that he came of age on June 17; and that Babu Dedraj and Brahmo Dutt, relying on his assurance that he had attained his majority, had agreed to advance to him Rs. 0,000. There is conflicting evidence as to the time when and circumstances under which that declaration was obtained; but it is unnecessary to go into this, as both Courts below have held that Kedar Nath did not act upon, and was not misled by, that statement, and was fully aware at the time the mortgage was executed of the minority of the respondent. It may be added here that Kedar Nath was the attorney and agent of Brahmo Dutt, and says in his evidence that he got the declaration for the greater security of his â€Å"client. † The infant had not any separate legal adviser. On September 10, 1895, the infant, by his mother and guardian as next friend, commenced this action against Brahmo Dutt, stating that he was under age when he executed the mortgage, and praying for a declaration that it was void and inoperative, and should be delivered up to be cancelled. The defendant, Brahmo Dutt, put in a defence that the plaintiff was of full age when he executed the mortgage; that neither he nor Kedar Nath had any notice that the plaintiff was then an infant; that, even if he was a minor, the declaration as to his age was fraudulently made to deceive the defendant, and disentitled the plaintiff to any relief; and that in any case the Court should not grant the plaintiff any relief without making him repay the moneys advanced. By a further statement the defendant alleged that the plaintiff had ubsequently ratified the mortgage; but this case wholly failed, and is not the subject of appeal. Jenkins J. , who presided in the Court of first instance, found the facts as above stated, and granted the relief asked. And the Appellate Court dismissed the appeal from him. Subsequently to the institution of the present appeal Brahmo Dutt died, and this appeal has been prosecuted by his executors. The first of the appellants’ reasons in support of the present appeal is that the Courts below were wrong in holding that the knowledge of Kedar Nath must be imputed to the defendant. In their Lordships’ opinion they were obviously right. The defendant was absent from Calcutta, and personally did not take any part in the transaction. It was entirely in charge of Kedar Nath, whose full authority to act as he did is not disputed. He stood in the place of the defendant for the purposes of this mortgage; and his acts and knowledge were the acts and knowledge of his principal. It was contended that Dedraj, the defendant’s gomastha, was the real representative in Calcutta of the defendant, and that he had no knowledge of the plaintiff’s minority. But there is nothing in this. He no doubt made the advance out of the defendant’s funds. But he says in his evidence that â€Å"Kedar Babu was acting on behalf of my master from the beginning in this matter†; and a little further on he adds that before the registration of the mortgage he did not communicate with his master on the subject of the minority. But he did know that there was a question raised as to the plaintiff’s age; and he says, â€Å"I left all matters regarding the minority in the hands of Kedar Babu. † The appellants’ counsel contended that the plaintiff is estopped by s. 115 of the Indian Evidence Act (I. f 1872) from setting up that he was an infant when he executed the mortgage. The section is as follows: â€Å"Estoppel. When one person has by his declaration act or omission intentionally caused or permitted another person to believe a thing to be true, and to act upon such belief, neither he nor his representative shall be allowed in any suit or proceeding b etween himself and such person or his representative to deny the truth of that thing. † The Courts below seem to have decided that this section does not apply to infants; but their Lordships do not think it necessary to deal with that question now. They consider it clear that the section does not apply to a case like the present, where the statement relied upon is made to a person who knows the real facts and is not misled by the untrue statement. There can be no estoppel where the truth of the matter is known to both parties, and their Lordships hold, in accordance with English authorities, that a false representation, made to a person who knows it to be false, is not such a fraud as to take away the privilege of infancy: Nelson v. Stocker. 0 The same principle is recognised in the explanation to s. 19 of the Indian Contract Act, in which it is said that a fraud or misrepresentation which did not cause the consent to a contract of the party on whom such fraud was practised, or to whom such misrepresentation was made, does not render a contract voidable. The point most pressed, however, on behalf of the appellants was that the Courts ought not to have decreed in the respondent’s favour without ordering him to repay to th e appellants the sum of Rs. 0,500, said to have been paid to him as part of the consideration for the mortgage. And in support of this contention s. 64 of the Contract Act (IX. of 1872) was relied on:— â€Å"Sect. 64. When a person at whose option a contract is voidable rescinds it, the other party thereto need not perform any promise therein contained of which he is promisor. The party rescinding a voidable contract shall, if he have received any benefit thereunder from another party to such contract, restore such benefit, so far as may be, to the person from whom it was received.    Both Courts below held that they were bound by authority to treat the contracts of infants as voidable only, and not void; but that this section only refers to contracts made by persons competent to contract, and therefore not to infants. The general current of decision in India certainly is that ever since the passing of the Indian Contract Act (IX, of 1872) the contracts of infants are void able only. This conclusion, however, has not been arrived at without vigorous protests by various judges from time to time; nor indeed without decisions to the contrary effect. Under these circumstances, their Lordships consider themselves at liberty to act on their own view of the law as declared by the Contract Act, and they have thought it right to have the case reargued before them upon this point. They do not consider it necessary to examine in detail the numerous decisions above referred to, as in their opinion the whole question turns upon what is the true construction of the Contract Act itself. It is necessary, therefore, to consider carefully the terms of that Act; but before doing so it may be convenient to refer to the Transfer of Property Act (IV of 1882), s. of which provides that every person competent to contract and entitled to transferable property. . . . is competent to transfer such property. . . . in the circumstances, to the extent, and in the manner allowed and prescribed by any law for the time bring in force. That is the Act under which the present mortgage was made, and it is merely dealing with persons competent to contract; and s . 4 of that Act provides that the chapters and sections of that Act which relate to contracts are to be taken as part of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. The present case, therefore, falls within the provisions of the latter Act. Then, to turn to the Contract Act, s. 2 provides: (e) Every promise and every set of promises, forming the consideration for each other, is an agreement. (g) An agreement not enforceable by law is said to be void. (h) An agreement enforceable by law is a contract. (i) An agreement which is enforceable by law at the option of one or more of the parties thereto, but not at the option of the other or others, is a voidable contract. Sect. 0 provides: â€Å"All agreements are contracts if they are made by the free consent of parties competent to contract for a lawful consideration and with a lawful object, and are not hereby expressly declared to be void. † Then s. 11 is most important, as defining who are meant by â€Å"persons competent to contract†; it is as follows; â€Å"Every person is competent to contract who is of the age of majority according to the law to which he is subject, and who is o f sound mind, and is not disqualified from contracting by any law to which he is subject. † Looking at these sections, their Lordships are atisfied that the Act makes it essential that all contracting parties should be â€Å"competent to contract,† and expressly provides that a person who by reason of infancy is incompetent to contract cannot make a contract within the meaning of the Act. This is clearly borne out by later sections in the Act. Sect. 68 provides that, â€Å"If a person incapable of entering into a contract, or any one whom he is legally bound to support, is supplied by another person with necessaries suited to his condition in life, the person who has furnished such supplies is entitled to be reimbursed from the property of such incapable person. It is beyond question that an infant falls within the class of persons here referred to as incapable of entering into a contract; and it is clear from the Act that he is not to be liable even for necessaries, a nd that no demand in respect thereof is enforceable against him by law, though a statutory claim is created against his property. Under ss. 183 and 184 no person under the age of majority can employ or be an agent. Again, under ss. 47 and 248, although a person under majority may be admitted to the benefits of a partnership, he cannot be made personally liable for any of its obligations; although he may on attaining majority accept those obligations if he thinks fit to do so. The question whether a contract is void or voidable presupposes the existence of a contract within the meaning of the Act, and cannot arise in the case of an infant. Their Lordships are, therefore, of opinion that in the present case there is not any such voidable contract as is dealt with in s. 64. A new point was raised here by the appellants’ counsel, founded on s. 5 of the Contract Act, a section not referred to in the Courts below, or in the cases of the appellants or respondent. It is sufficient to say that this section, like s. 64. starts from the basis of there being an agreement or contract between competent parties, and has no application to a case in which there never was, and never could have been, any contract. It was further argued that the preamble of the Act shewed that the Act was only intended to define and amend certain parts of the law relating to contracts, and that contracts by infants were left outside the Act. If this were so, it does not appear how it would help the appellants. But in their Lordships’ opinion the Act, so far as it goes, is exhaustive and imperative, and does provide in clear language that an infant is not a person competent to bind himself by a contract of this description. Another enactment relied upon as a reason why the mortgage money should be returned is s. 41 of the Specific Relief Act (I. of 1877), which is as follows: â€Å"Sect. 41. On adjudging the cancellation of an instrument the Court may require the party to whom such relief is granted to make any compensation to the other which justice may require. Sect. 38 provides in similar terms for a case of rescission of a contract. These sections, no doubt, do give a discretion to the Court; but the Court of first instance, and subsequently the Appellate Court, in the exercise of such discretion, came to the conclusion that under the circumstances of this case justice did not require them to order the return by the respondent of money advanced to him with full knowledge of his infancy, and their Lordships see no reason for interfering with the discretion so exercised. It was also contended that one who seeks equity must do equity. But this is the last point over again, and does not require further notice except by referring to a recent decision of the Court of Appeal in Thurstan v. Nottingham Permanent Benefit Building Society21, since affirmed by the House of Lords. 22 In that case a female infant obtained from the society of which she was a member part of the purchase-money of some property she purchased; and the society also agreed to make her advances to complete certain buildings thereon. They made the advances, and took from her a mortgage for the amount. On attaining twenty-one she brought the action to have the mortgage declared void under the Infants Relief Act. The Court held that, as regards the purchase-money paid to the vendor, the society was entitled to stand in his place and had a lien upon the property, but that the mortgage must be declared void, and that the society was not entitled to any repayment of the advances. Dealing with this part of their claim Romer L. J, says23: â€Å"The short answer is that a Court of Equity cannot say that it is equitable to compel a person to pay any moneys in respect of a transaction which as against that person the Legislature has declared to be void. So here. Their Lordships observe that the construction which they have put upon the Contract Act seems to be in accordance with the old Hindu Law as declared in the laws of Menu, ch. viii. 163; and Colebrooke’s Dig. liii. 2, vol. ii. p. 181; although there are no doubt, decisions of some weight that before the Indian Contract Act an infant’s contract was voidable only in accordance with English law as it then stood. The appeal, therefore, wholly fails; and their Lordships will humbly advise His Majesty that it should be dismissed. The appellants must pay the costs of the appeal.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Is Milk Healthy for You? Essay

The start of every mammal’s life begins with the consumption of milk, whether it is from its mother or a bottle. All female mammals produce milk and it’s their responsibility to feed their milk to their offspring. The ultimate reason is to give the offspring all of the vitamins and minerals in milk that will allow them to grow big and strong, while also filling their appetite. Some of the ingredients found in milk that are necessary for our bodies to function on a daily basis are things such as carbohydrates, fat, protein, enzymes, and vitamin D and A. All baby mammals must drink milk to start their life so that they can grow up living strong and healthy lives. Without all of these vital components found in milk, life as we know it may cease to exist. Drinking milk has been the way of life for all mammals and humans since the beginning of time, which only backs up the fact that milk is very healthy for our bodies. Some people think differently of this issue and say that milk is the wrong choice for us and that it can be quite harmful. If we’ve been drinking milk for thousands of years and it contains all of these necessary ingredients for our bodies to function properly, how can milk suddenly be a terrible choice for our bodies? To start off, milk has several different components within it that benefit our bodies and assist in optimum daily functioning. These ingredients also help prove why milk is definitely a healthy choice to drink. Milk contains carbohydrates to give your body fuel by providing energy to the cells in your body. It has protein to help build muscle and other tissues. It also contains enzymes to speed up the process of breaking down materials in your body such as food. Last but not least, it is a great source of vitamin A, for eye sight, and vitamin D, to help absorb the calcium in your body to build bone strength. Despite the fact that on the milk carton it says it contains all of these nutrients, people still believe that milk isn’t a healthy choice. Even with these facts, people still think that milk is bad for us. Don’t get me wrong, there are people in the world that don’t drink milk for legitimate reasons that are unrelated to nutritional factors. One common reason is lactose intolerance. Lots of people around the world are known to have acquired this syndrome. I say â€Å"acquired† because more times than not, a person obtains intolerance for the lactose in milk products after the weaning process of birth rather than actually being born with it. The basic definition of lactose intolerance is that people have an insufficient amount of lactase, an enzyme that catalyzes lactose into all of its components, in their digestive system. This could be a legitimate reason not to drink milk –– but these people aren’t the ones saying milk is bad for you. Another reason may be because of the texture or taste. Some people just don’t enjoy the taste that milk has to offer. Others may not like how thick and creamy it may be compared to water. All of these reasons are acceptable explanations to dislike drinking milk. It’s when people don’t drink milk because of nutritional reasons that should be frowned upon. Now that our excused milk drinkers are free of charge, let’s talk about the unexcused. There is an astounding amount of sources that can be found online to support the abolition of milk in the human diet. Many articles rant on about all of the factors of milk that can harm your body. Examples of these statements include things such as milk having the capability to deteriorate bone density. Cindy Jones-Shoeman, a published writer for Natural News, writes in an article from February 2009 about how a woman by the name of Vivian Goldschmidt said, â€Å"the animal protein found in milk actually depletes the human body of calcium, exactly the opposite of what milk drinkers expect it to do,† (Jones-Shoeman). Vivian may have an MA in nutrition, but what she doesn’t mention in her article is that it specifies in bone health nutrition –– even more specifically dealing with antidotes for osteoporosis. She gives no evidence in the article proving that calcium does this sort of damage to our body. I think we can now infer that she may be quite informed about the osteoporosis portion of bone health but not about the facts of milk and its effects on the human body. This is why people should be dubious when reading articles online. You never know what nonsense you might stumble upon. To dig deeper into her credentials, Vivian claims to have been diagnosed with osteoporosis but has dealt with and supposedly cured herself of this disease in her own natural manner –– without medication. She was the creator and founder of an organization called Save Our Bones, which is profitable as a company by earning money selling their merchandise such as books and magazines about how to strengthen bone health for osteoporosis patients. What we may not notice is what she said about the animal protein in milk causing the depletion of calcium in our body. She doesn’t specify what the animal protein is or even how its process of destroying calcium works. This means she is saying that this evident protein, when consumed, will obliterate the calcium content that our body has already utilized? I may not know much about protein facts, but I know enough to say that the world has been drinking milk for generations upon generations and there has been no explicit evidence proving that people have actually been losing calcium from drinking milk, which is comprised of 30% calcium minerals. Being that it is one of the most commonly found minerals in the body, calcium is the nutrient every living mammal needs for their growth and stability. Without it, our bones would be jell-o and our teeth would be spongy. So now that we see milk is healthy for us, which type of milk should we pick? There are numerous types of milk alternatives out there in the world for people to test out and discover, but only one type should be chosen. All milk begins on the whole milk side of the spectrum and continues on to fat-free skim milk when fats are distilled out of it. When people hear the word â€Å"fat† they assume it’s malignant to our bodies and could make us fatter and more obese in return. The number one reason for people choosing lower-fat milk rather than whole milk in their diet is because they think these fats are bad for us. Lower-fat milks are also argued to be healthier than whole milk because they have lower quantities of saturated fat, which has been linked to a variety of serious health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, strokes, and even types of cancer. Both of these factors supposedly add to the conclusion that lower-fat milks help your risk of heart diseases and other potentially fatal diseases along with the ability to lose weight. But unfortunately, the people who agree with these statements would be wrong. Other websites are on the same track in saying that whole milk is the basis of a lot of health problems such as heart disease, strokes, high cholesterol, and diabetes (Internet Brands). Some people claim that the saturated fat in milk is to blame for these tribulations. Ironically, all of these so-called â€Å"facts† have been proven to have the exact opposite results. Science has now revealed that the link between saturated fat and heart diseases is tenuous at best. Two highly honored doctors of nutrition along with a man who mastered in nutrition contributed to the American Journal for Clinical Nutrition about the misinterpreted perspective of saturated fat. One of the doctors, Ancel Keys, has prominently worked on studies in the 1950’s which resulted with his essay titled â€Å"Cholesterol Controversy,† in which he added on to the Journal with later. Their summary about saturated fat states that it has been proven to be very beneficial to the human body to consume saturated fat, although in moderation. Their studies show that consuming saturated fats raised good cholesterol –– the kind of cholesterol you want and need in your body to stay healthy. They even specifically added in their paper that, â€Å"we are in danger of ill health unless we drink milk because, in letters a foot high, ‘EVERY BODY NEEDS MILK,’† (Keys, Grande, and Anderson). Now that this subject has been cleared up for the misinformed people, we can now move on to even more in depth controversies about the types of milk. Another common misconception is that extracting the fat out of whole milk will make it healthier for humans. Whole milk contains roughly 3. 5% fat while skim milk contains essentially no fat and 2% and 1% milk are self-explanatory, but these fats are actually not bad for us at all. Most people would think that less fat means a more pure product, which would intuitively be healthier. The fact is that the fats in whole milk are not actually harmful to our body at all but instead should be known as dietary fats that our body needs and uses in positive ways. Our body uses the fats in whole milk as a carbohydrate to help yield the energy we exert every day. But ultimately, these fats are absolutely essential for the breaking down process of the vitamins and minerals that whole milk supplies us with. The Office of Dietary Supplements –– the National Institute of Health –– states in one of their articles that the vitamins such as vitamin A and D are fat soluble (â€Å"Vitamin A† and â€Å"Vitamin D†). This means that our bodies can’t absorb these minerals from milk if all the fat has been skimmed off because the fat is what helps break down the nutrients so our body can access and absorb them. Another article also declares that, â€Å"you can pump fat-free milk full of a year’s supply of vitamins A and D, but the body can’t access them,† because the fats are not there to break them down for the body to absorb (Bergeson). Also, these milk fats contain glycosphingolipids, which are the types of fats that are linked to good immune system health and cell metabolism (Bergeson). Eating these fats with our daily portion of milk assists in reducing the risk of heart disease and strokes, which proves the earlier statements to be incorrect. Milk that is fat reduced is actually known to lose some of the nutritional content as well. To fix this issue, companies that make lower-fat milk will inject, either in liquid or powder form, alternative vitamins and minerals to keep the nutrient levels the same what it started at –– this being when it began as whole milk. But as stated before, no matter how many extra nutrients are pumped into the lower-fat milks, they are not accessible because of the absence of fats to break them down. So it turns out, the fat in whole milk is actually not bad for you at all, but actually is necessary to allow your body access to the vitamins and minerals in whole milk. As well as the fat content, people are always worrying about the saturated fat and mineral content on the labels of all of their foods that they eat. Do people even know what they are looking at? Maybe if we all take a quick and careful look at the labels on the cartons we can solve this in a simple and trouble-free manner. Whole milk does in fact have a higher saturated fat percentage in it than lower-fat milk types on the market, but this isn’t necessarily a bad thing. I stated before how saturated fat is good for you in moderation but there is an even simpler way of determining if something is healthy for you or not by just looking closely at the label. On every label of milk are the daily percents next to each nutritional label. Based on a 2000 calorie per day diet, these daily value, or DV, percentages describe the daily value percentage of a nutrient we are receiving from one serving of a particular milk brand. Surprisingly to some people, saturated fat has a percent of daily value next to it, which implies that we need saturated fat in our diet to be healthy –– in moderation of course. Better yet, whole milk, which gives us 25% of our DV percent, supplies us with more of a portion of that daily percentage than lower-fat milks, which can range from 15% to 0%. With lower-fat milks having less saturated fat percentages in them, we would have to drink more to get our daily percent for the day, which also means more calories. So, even though whole milk has 150 calories per cup and average lower-fat milks have 130, you would still have to drink more cups of lower-fat milk to get your daily value of each nutrient label. As a result, you are literally hurting yourself by consuming more calories than needed. If a healthy diet consists of 2000 calories, you would have to find an alternative source to retrieve the rest of the nutrients you are lacking when drinking lower-fat milk, while also being careful not go over a healthy calorie diet. To expand further on the calorie controversy, whole milk has a thicker content than that of lower-fat milk because it is composed of all of the nutritious fats that we need. I am intending to imply that because whole milk is thicker, and it will fill you up quicker than lower-fat milks will. This means that when people consume lower-fat milks, they tend to be hungrier more often because their milk does not always satisfy their hunger. In turn, this will cause them to either drink more of their milk or eat more of other foods. If they choose to drink more of their lower-fat milk, they are only adding on the extra calories that their body doesn’t need, which would end up being higher than just drinking whole milk. They also might choose to eat on more junk food, such as sweets or salty snacks, to please their craving which will do even more damage to their health and figure. Now granted, some of us may choose a healthier option to snack on such as fruits or vegetables, but when we have hunger pains we will eat anything to satisfy it. The previous paradox will thus contribute to the process of weight gain rather than losing weight –– which people do not normally expect from drinking their lower-fat milks. By drinking whole milk, people will feel more satisfied which will curb their appetite and discourage eating junk food, which keeps off the fat that contributes to weight gain. Since they are satisfied from their whole milk, they tend to drink it in smaller portions, which allows them to consume fewer calories and sugars that we don’t need in our diet. As you can see, milk is more beneficial to our bodies than we may believe. Since the beginning of time we have relied on milk since infancy in one form or another. This hasn’t shown any faults to their bodies, but has actually shown extreme improvement in the growth of height, muscle, and bone density when consumed on a regular basis. So, why do people suddenly think that milk is bad for us and stop drinking it as adults? Times change, and there are people out in the world that try to find loopholes and excuses to why they don’t have to drink milk. This snowballs into the misconception that drinking milk is not a healthy choice for us. But milk’s physical properties and nutritional values aren’t going to change just like that; so it’s inevitable that milk will be healthy for us for the rest of our lives and for all the generations to come. People like to assume that if they have to choose a type of milk then it would be low-fat or better so they can keep their waistlines thin and be better protected from diseases. Sadly, this is not true. Whole milk would most definitely be the better choice because it is all natural and it contains all of the crucial components needed to stay disease-free and actually stay trimmer and fitter. So people of America and the world, milk is not a substance we should ever avoid. Milk is the building block of life which helps us all grow strong muscles, dense bones, and healthy immune systems. And to get the optimum outcome from milk’s effects, choose whole milk. It’s all natural and contains everything our bodies need to thrive. Drink up! Got milk? Works Cited Bergeson, Laine. Why Whole Milk is the Healthiest Choice. Experience Life. 31 Aug. 2009. Web. 5 Feb. 2013. http://www. care2. com/greenliving/why-whole-milk-is-the-healthiest-choice. html Internet Brands. Nutrition of Low-fat Milk. FITDAY. 2011. Web. 5 Feb 2013. http://www. fitday. com/fitness-articles/nutrition/healthy-eating/the-nutrition-of-lowfat-milk. html#b Jones-Shoeman, Cindy. Why milk is bad for you. 9 Feb. 2011. Web. 5 Feb. 2013. http://www. naturalnews. com/031255_milk_health. html. Keys, Ancel, Francisco Grande, and Joseph T. Anderson. â€Å"Bias and misrepresentation revisited: Perspective† on saturated fat. † The American journal of clinical nutrition 27. 2 (1974): 188-212. United States. The Office of Dietary Supplements. The National Institute of Health. Vitamin A. June 24, 2011. Web Feb 19, 2013. http://ods. od. nih. gov/factsheets/VitaminA-QuickFacts/ United States. The Office of Dietary Supplements. The National Institute of Health. Vitamin D. June 24, 2011. Web Feb 19, 2013. http://ods. od. nih. gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Hassium Facts - Hs or Element 108

Hassium Facts - Hs or Element 108 Element atomic number 108 is hassium, which has the element symbol Hs. Hassium is one of the manmade or synthetic radioactive elements. Only about 100 atoms of this element have been produced so there is not a lot of experimental data for it. Properties are predicted based on the behavior of other elements in the same element group. Hassium is expected to be a metallic silver or gray metal at room temperature, much like the element osmium. All of the isotopes of hassium are radioactive. Martin Diebel / Getty Images Here are interesting facts about this rare metal: Discovery:  Peter Armbruster, Gottfried Munzenber and co-workers produced hassium at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany in 1984. The GSI team bombarded a lead-208 target with iron-58 nuclei. However, Russian scientists had attempted to synthesize hassium in 1978 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Their initial data was inconclusive, so they repeated the experiments five years later, producing Hs-270, Hs-264, and Hs-263. Element Name:  Before its official discovery, hassium was referred to as element 108, eka-osmium or unniloctium. Hassium was the subject of a naming controversy over which team should be given official credit for discovering element 108. The 1992 IUPAC/IUPAP Transfermium Working Group (TWG) recognized the GSI team, stating that their work was more detailed. Peter Armbruster and his colleagues proposed the name hassium from the Latin  Hassias  meaning Hess or Hesse, the German state, where this element was first produced. In 1994, an IUPAC committee recommended making the elements name hahnium (Hn) in honor of the German physicist Otto Hahn. This was despite the convention of allowing the discovering team the right to suggest a name. The German discoverers and the American Chemical Society (ACS) protested the name change and the IUPAC finally allowed element 108 to be officially named hassium (Hs) in 1997. Atomic Number:  108 Symbol:  Hs Atomic Weight:  [269] Group: Group 8, d-block element, transition metal Electron Configuration:  [Rn] 7s2  5f14  6d6 Appearance:  Hassium is believed to be a dense solid metal at room temperature and pressure. If enough of the element were produced, it is expected it would have a shiny, metallic appearance. Its possible hassium could be even more dense than the heaviest known element, osmium. The predicted density of hassium is  41  g/cm3. Properties: Its likely hassium reacts with oxygen in air to form a volatile tetraoxide. Following periodic law, hassium should be the heaviest element in group 8 of the periodic table. It is predicted that hassium has a high melting point, crystallizes in the hexagonal close-packed structure (hcp), and has a bulk modulus (resistance to compression) on par with diamond (442 GPa). Differences between hassium and its homologue osmium would likely be due to relativistic effects. Sources:  Hassium was first synthesized by bombarding lead-208 with iron-58 nuclei. Only 3 atoms of hassium were produced at this time. In 1968, Russian scientist Victor Cherdyntsev claimed to have discovered naturally-occurring hassium in a sample of  molybdenite, but this was not verified. To date, hassium has not been found in nature. The short half-lives of the known isotopes of hassium mean no primordial hassium could have survived to the present day. However, its still possible nuclear isomers or isotopes with longer half-lives might be found in trace quantities. Element Classification:  Hassium is a transition metal that  is expected to have properties similar to those of the platinum group of transition metals. Like the other elements in this group, hassium is expected to have oxidation states of 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. The 8, 6, 4, and 2 states will likely be the most stable, based on the elements electron configuration. Isotopes:  12 isotopes of hassium are known, from masses  263 to 277. All of them are radioactive. The most stable isotope is  Hs-269, which has a half-life of 9.7 seconds. Hs-270 is of particular interest because it possesses magic number of nuclear stability. The atomic number 108 is a proton magic number for deformed (nonspherical) nuclei, while 162 is a neutron magic number for deformed nuclei. This doubly magic nucleus has a low decay energy compared with other hassium isotopes. More research is needed to determine whether or not Hs-270 is an isotope in the proposed island of stability. Health Effects:  While the platinum group metals tend not to be particularly toxic, hassium presents a health risk because of its significant radioactivity. Uses:  At present, hassium is only used for research. Sources Emsley, John (2011). Natures Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements (New ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 215–7. ISBN 978-0-19-960563-7.Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). Transactinides and the future elements. In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer ScienceBusiness Media. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1.Names and symbols of transfermium elements (IUPAC Recommendations 1994).  Pure and Applied Chemistry  66  (12): 2419. 1994.Mà ¼nzenberg, G.; Armbruster, P.; Folger, H.; et al. (1984). The identification of element 108 (PDF). Zeitschrift fà ¼r Physik A. 317 (2): 235–236. doi:10.1007/BF01421260Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Pleve, A. A.; et al. (1978). ОÐ ¿Ã'‹Ã'‚Ã'‹ Ð ¿Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ¸Ã ½Ã'‚Ð µÃ ·Ã'Æ' 108 Ã' Ã »Ã µÃ ¼Ã µÃ ½Ã'‚Ð ° Ð ² Ã'€Ð µÃ °Ã ºÃ'†Ð ¸Ã ¸ [Experiments on the sy nthesis of element 108 in the 226Ra48Ca reaction] (in Russian). Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.